These Guidelines were developed as a guide to best practices and procedures in order to ensure that appropriate methods and procedures are used throughout the entire investigation process so that forensic data collected is credible and admissible. The Guidelines aim to facilitate the use of forensic science to the fullest extent possible in order to combat wildlife crime, and in particular, to combat the trade in illegal ivory.
The legal framework on wildlife conservation in Tanzania consists of the Wildlife Conservation Act, the National Parks Act and the Marine Parks and Reserves Act. In Zanzibar, the main law dealing with wildlife is the Forest Resources Management and Conservation Act.
The wildlife legislation in Swaziland is fragmented and there are several pieces of legislation that address various aspects of wildlife conservation such as the institutional framework, protected areas and protection of a specific class or specific classes of species. Protection of wildlife and the environment is specially protected in the Constitution. The Constitution provides that in the interests of the present and future generations, the State shall protect and make rational use of its land, mineral and water resources as well as its fauna and flora, and shall take appropriate measures to conserve and improve the environment.
The law on conservation in Mozambique is rooted in the Constitution which provides for general guiding principles for conservation as well as rights and duties of citizens in conserving their environment. The Constitution provides that all citizens have the right to live in a balanced environment and the obligation to protect it from degradation.
The main law governing wildlife conservation and management in Kenya is the Wildlife Conservation and Management Act, 2013 (WCMA). The preamble to the WCMA states that it was enacted to provide for the protection, conservation, sustainable use and management of wildlife in Kenya and for connected purposes. The provisions of the Act apply to all wildlife resources on public, community and private land and Kenya territorial waters.
The main law governing wildlife in Ethiopia is the Development, Conservation and Utilization of Wildlife Proclamation. This is a federal proclamation and individual states may enact their own laws addressing wildlife conservation within their jurisdictions.
Botswana has a comprehensive legislative framework on wildlife. The main law governing wildlife conservation is the Wildlife Conservation and National Parks Act of 1992. Prior to the enactment of the Wildlife Conservation and National Parks Act, wildlife conservation and Management of National parks was addressed under two different laws. These are the Fauna Conservation Act (repealed) of 1961 and the National Parks Act (repealed) of 1967.
Domestic law is primarily responsible for determining the nature, scope and consequences of wildlife crimes. In turn, without comprehensive wildlife laws at the national level it is difficult to combat wildlife and forest offences at the international level. Essentially the law follows the policy.