For purposes of wildlife law enforcement, African states are parties to various international agreements including CITES which regulates trade in wildlife and wildlife products, UNCTOC which seeks to curb transnational organized crimes and the UNCAC which addresses corruption in law enforcement.
Tanzanian law provides for various kinds of penalties that can be meted out. These include death, imprisonment, corporal punishment, fines, forfeiture, compensation and giving security to keep the peace.
Wildlife legislation in Tanzania creates various offences to enforce its provisions. The offences aim at protecting habitats, protecting wildlife, regulating hunting, regulating trade in wildlife and wildlife products, regulating wildlife trophies and ensuring proper administration and enforcement of the law.
The highest prison term is under the Game Act for offences against protected game. The Game Act provides a mandatory minimum of 5 years imprisonment and a maximum of 15 years imprisonment without the option of a fine.
Eswatini’s wildlife laws set out a number of offences to protect habitats, to protect wildlife, to regulate hunting, to regulate trade in wildlife and wildlife products to regulate wildlife trophies and to ensure proper administration of the laws.
The Constitution of Mozambique provides that no penalty shall deprive persons of any of their civil, professional or political rights, nor shall any penalty deprive a convicted person of his or her fundamental rights, except in so far as the restrictions are inherent to the conviction and are specifically necessary for the execution of the sentence.
Mozambican law has set out offences to protect habitats, to protect wildlife, to regulate hunting and to regulate trade in wildlife and wildlife product. The main laws that define wildlife offenses are the Forests and Wildlife Law, Forestry and Wildlife Regulations and the Conservation Areas Law. The Forestry and Wildlife Regulations, being a regulation, provides more details than the Forests and Wildlife Law and the Conservation Areas Law.
Penalties under the Wildlife Conservation and National Parks Act and subsidiary legislation involve a combination of fines and imprisonment. The Act also provides for administrative penalties including forfeiture, destruction of instrumentalities of crime and cancellation of permits.