Wildlife forensic science contributes to solving crimes through investigative activities. These include determining the cause of wildlife death, identifying suspects, finding missing wildlife parts and profiling wildlife. Forensic scientists can identify suspects by analysing evidence found at the scene of a crime such as blood and fingerprints. Forensic science is also key in exonerating the innocent.
The International Consortium On Combating Wildlife Crime (ICCWC) -This is a partnership between the CITES Secretariat, Interpol, UNODC, the World Bank and the World Customs Organization (WCO) and is a unique pool of technical and programming expertise to address wildlife and forest crime.
For purposes of wildlife law enforcement, African states are parties to various international agreements including CITES which regulates trade in wildlife and wildlife products, UNCTOC which seeks to curb transnational organized crimes and the UNCAC which addresses corruption in law enforcement.
Tanzanian law provides for various kinds of penalties that can be meted out. These include death, imprisonment, corporal punishment, fines, forfeiture, compensation and giving security to keep the peace.
Wildlife legislation in Tanzania creates various offences to enforce its provisions. The offences aim at protecting habitats, protecting wildlife, regulating hunting, regulating trade in wildlife and wildlife products, regulating wildlife trophies and ensuring proper administration and enforcement of the law.
The highest prison term is under the Game Act for offences against protected game. The Game Act provides a mandatory minimum of 5 years imprisonment and a maximum of 15 years imprisonment without the option of a fine.
Eswatini’s wildlife laws set out a number of offences to protect habitats, to protect wildlife, to regulate hunting, to regulate trade in wildlife and wildlife products to regulate wildlife trophies and to ensure proper administration of the laws.
The Constitution of Mozambique provides that no penalty shall deprive persons of any of their civil, professional or political rights, nor shall any penalty deprive a convicted person of his or her fundamental rights, except in so far as the restrictions are inherent to the conviction and are specifically necessary for the execution of the sentence.