This publication evaluates the role of property rights in wildlife management and the laws in place for the protection of biodiversity and the rights impacting on management activities. The paper argues that private property rights and current wildlife conservation and management laws and policies in Kenya fail to provide the solution to wildlife biodiversity erosion partly because of their preoccupation with a monolithic system of property ownership favouring the state and individuals and neglecting communities and/or groups.
South Africa’s wildlife conservation is guided by a number of policies and strategies including the White Paper on the Conservation and Sustainable Use of South Africa’s Biological Diversity of 1997, the National Biodiversity Strategy and Action Plan of 2005, the National Biodiversity Framework of 2008 and the National Protected Area Expansion Strategy also of 2008, among others.
A policy is a set of principles, rules and guidelines formulated or adopted by to reach a long-term goal. Policies are designed to influence and determine all major decisions and actions regarding the specific aspect which the policy intends to address. All activities must take place within the boundaries set by the policy.
Wildlife crime still remains a serious conservation issue which has grown so much as to have international ramifications. Wildlife crime includes poaching, illegal exploitation of wildlife resources, encroachment into protected areas, illegal wildlife trade and destruction of wildlife habitats. It has both direct and indirect negative impacts on local communities, including depletion of the resource base on which they depend for their livelihoods. According to recent studies, wildlife crime is the fourth largest illegal activity in the world, after drug trafficking, counterfeiting and human trafficking, with an annual turnover of at least US$ 19 billion.