The highest prison term is under the Game Act for offences against protected game. The Game Act provides a mandatory minimum of 5 years imprisonment and a maximum of 15 years imprisonment without the option of a fine.
Eswatini’s wildlife laws set out a number of offences to protect habitats, to protect wildlife, to regulate hunting, to regulate trade in wildlife and wildlife products to regulate wildlife trophies and to ensure proper administration of the laws.
Unprecedented levels of poaching of elephants, rhinos and other high value charismatic species across Africa is severely threatening the future of these species and the ecosystems they inhabit. As poaching groups increase in size, number and sophistication, it is more important than ever that law enforcement responses in protected areas are robust, reliable, and effective.
The Constitution of Mozambique provides that no penalty shall deprive persons of any of their civil, professional or political rights, nor shall any penalty deprive a convicted person of his or her fundamental rights, except in so far as the restrictions are inherent to the conviction and are specifically necessary for the execution of the sentence.
Mozambican law has set out offences to protect habitats, to protect wildlife, to regulate hunting and to regulate trade in wildlife and wildlife product. The main laws that define wildlife offenses are the Forests and Wildlife Law, Forestry and Wildlife Regulations and the Conservation Areas Law. The Forestry and Wildlife Regulations, being a regulation, provides more details than the Forests and Wildlife Law and the Conservation Areas Law.
This publication evaluates the role of property rights in wildlife management and the laws in place for the protection of biodiversity and the rights impacting on management activities. The paper argues that private property rights and current wildlife conservation and management laws and policies in Kenya fail to provide the solution to wildlife biodiversity erosion partly because of their preoccupation with a monolithic system of property ownership favouring the state and individuals and neglecting communities and/or groups.
Penalties under the Wildlife Conservation and National Parks Act and subsidiary legislation involve a combination of fines and imprisonment. The Act also provides for administrative penalties including forfeiture, destruction of instrumentalities of crime and cancellation of permits.